### Dyscalculia

Further information can be found on aboutdyscalculia Dr. Anna Wilson who owns this site is also trained to use NUMICON.  She can see how useful Numicon is for students with dyscalculia and other learning difficulties. Numicon is soon to be linked on her website.

Dyscalculia has characteristcs that may all be present in a person, or some of them.

According to current estimates (Butterworth (1999))
• about 10% of the population are dyslexic (4% severe, 6% mild/moderate)
• of these 40% have some degree of difficulty with maths
• additionally 4 to 6% is dyscalculic only.

### Dyscalculia’ (Kosc)

Verbal (interpretation of terms)
Operational (performing operations)
Lexical (written terms, symbols)
Graphical (symbol manipulation)
Ideognostic (mental calculations)
Practognostic (pictorial representation)

### Types of mathematical deficits (Luria)

• Deficits of logic: problems with spatial order e.g. ‘the circle below the square’, or writing numbers in correct sequence
• Deficits in planning: developing problem solving strategies - understanding the maths language.

Perseveration: inflexibility in application e.g. continuing to divide by 2, a strategy which has been successful

• Inability to do simple calculations: e.g. use of multiplication tables, inefficient counting or addition strategies.

More precise specification (Mahesh Sharma)
“Dyscalculia is an inability to conceptualise numbers, number relationships (arithmetical facts) and the outcomes of numerical operations (estimating the answer to numerical problems before actually calculating).”
The emphasis here being on conceptualisation rather than on the numerical operations

### Other definitions:

The DfES (2001)

" Dyscalculia is a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they may do so mechanically and without confidence."

Definition of Dyscalculia (Butterworth 2002)
• Dyscalculia is sometimes called number blindness. It is the name given to the condition that affects our ability to acquire arithmetical skills.
• Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures.

• 6% difficulties with calculation - higher than 4% with reading difficulties.

### Numicon benefits students being able to:

• Manipulate, observe, notice, explore patterns
• See connections between images
• See that numbers form a highly organised system – full of many kinds of patterns
• Form impressions, develop ideas, techniques, skills, associations & experiences that add up to mental impressions of maths ideas
• Develop concept images that play an important part of number experiences